1. According to the fault, if there have destructive classification or no
(1) Destructive failure.
1) Failure of the machine will cause damage to the machine and the operator, resulting in damage to the machine or personal injury.
2) Some destructive failures are caused by humans.
3) When the maintenance personnel conduct fault diagnosis, they must not reproduce the fault. They can only be analyzed and eliminated according to the introduction of the site personnel.
4) The troubleshooting techniques for such faults are difficult and have certain risks, and maintenance personnel should be very careful.
(2) Non-destructive failure.
1) Most faults are such faults, which are often eliminated by "clearing".
2) Maintenance personnel can reproduce such faults and analyze and judge through phenomena.
2. Classification according to the fault nature of CNC router
(1) Systematic failure. Usually it refers to the failure of CNC router in operation as long as certain conditions are met or exceed a certain set limit. This type of failure is extremely common. For example, when the pressure value of the hydraulic system drops to a certain set parameter with the blockage of the hydraulic circuit filter, a hydraulic alarm will inevitably cause the system to be powered off. Another example: the lubrication system will cause the oil level alarm to cause the machine to stop due to the leakage of the oil standard to the use limit. Another example: when the cutting amount is too large to reach a certain limit during machine tool processing, an overload or over-temperature alarm will inevitably occur, causing the system to stop quickly.
(2) Random failure. Usually an index-controlled cnc router only accidentally fails once or twice when working under the same conditions.
This is called "soft fault", because such faults occur only once or twice in the same state under various conditions. Therefore, the analysis of the causes of random failures and fault diagnosis are much more difficult than other faults. In general, the occurrence of such faults is often related to factors such as installation quality, component arrangement, parameter setting, component quality, operational errors and improper maintenance, and the impact of the working environment. For example, the connector and the connection component are inadvertently locked, the components on the printed circuit board are loosely deformed or the solder joints are collapsed, and the relay contacts, various types of switch contacts are caused by pollution corrosion and poor carbon brush of the DC motor. Contact is not reliable. In addition, such accidental failures can be caused by high or low working environment temperatures, excessive humidity, power fluctuations and mechanical vibrations, and harmful dust and gas pollution. Therefore, to strengthen the maintenance and inspection of the CNC system, to ensure the sealing of the electrical box door, to prevent industrial dust and harmful gas from invading, etc., to avoid such hidden troubles as much as possible.
3. Classification of parts that fail in CNC router
(1) The host is faulty. The main part of the CNC router mainly includes mechanical, lubrication, cooling, chip evacuation, hydraulic, pneumatic and protective devices. Common host failures are: mechanical transmission failures caused by mechanical installation, commissioning, and improper use of the operation, or excessive friction of the guide rails. It is characterized by large transmission noise, poor machining accuracy and resistance to running. For example, the flexible coupling of the axial transmission chain is loose, the gear, the screw and the bearing are lack of oil, the adjustment of the guide rail is improper, the lubrication of the guide rail is poor, and the system parameters are improperly set, etc., which may cause the above failure. In particular, it should be noted that the oil injection points (oil injection holes) indicated in all parts of the machine tool must be regularly and quantitatively filled with lubricating oil (agent), which is a guarantee for the normal operation of the drive chain of the machine tool.
In addition, the failure phenomenon of hydraulic, lubrication and pneumatic systems is mainly due to pipeline blockage and poor sealing. Therefore, CNC router should strengthen the management and eradicate the phenomenon of “three leaks”.
(2) Electrical failure. Electrical faults are divided into weak electrical faults and strong electrical faults: weak electrical parts mainly refer to CNC devices, PLC controllers, CRT displays, and electronic circuits such as servo units, input and output devices, and this part has hardware faults and software faults.Hardware failure mainly refers to failures of integrated circuit chips, discrete components, connectors, and external connection components on the printed circuit boards of the above devices.